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A group of organisms of the same species, sharing certain hereditary characteristics not typical of the entire species but minor enough not to warrant classification as a separate breed or variety.Resistance to specific antibiotics is a feature of certain strains of bacteria.This statement is corroborated by field observations of igneous sills emplaced in shale-carbonate rocks, which exhibit complex brittle-ductile deformation that accommodated the emplacement of the magma (Schofield et al., 2012; Duffield et al., 2016; Spacapan et al., 2017) (Figure 1D).Moreover, field observations in the host rock of thin laccoliths in the Henry Mountains, Utah, evidence significant plastic shear failure and ductile deformation of the overburden (Román-Berdiel et al., 1995; de Saint Blanquat et al., 2006; Wilson et al., 2016), in contrast to the elastic assumptions of the theoretical models (e.g., Pollard, 1973; Bunger and Cruden, 2011).The viscosity of magma varies over many orders of magnitude, depending on, e.g., temperature, volatile content and composition (e.g., Dingwell et al., 1993; Scaillet et al., 1997), while crustal rocks exhibit a wide range of visco-elasto-plastic rheologies (e.g., Ranalli, 1995).Consequently, depending on magma viscosity and host rock rheology, the magma/host mechanical systems can exhibit distinct and/or mixed physical behaviors, which lead to (1) intrusions of significantly diverse shapes (e.g., sheets to “blobs”) and (2) contrasting deformation patterns in the host (Galland et al., 2018).
In volcanic systems, however, the simplicity of this statement is challenged by the complexity of geological materials.(C) A dyke (elastic end-member) fractures and intrudes the host rock with negligible host rock displacement, thus, the ascent rate is primarily controlled by host rock fracture strength and magma viscosity. (D) Interpreted field photograph of outcrop exposing a sheet-like sill, magmatic fingers, and the associated structures in the shale-carbonate host rock, Cuesta del Chihuido, Mendoza Province, Argentina (Spacapan et al., 2017).The outcrop shows that the sill tip is round or blunt, and that both ductile deformation of the shale layers, brittle shear faulting of thin carbonate layers and elastic bending of thick carbonate layers accommodate the emplacement and propagation of the sill.Our novel experiments are the first able to produce the natural diversity of intrusion shapes and host deformation mechanisms.
In addition, our results show that the use of a polariscope in gel experiments is essential to unravel the mechanics of magma emplacement within a host of realistic visco-elasto-plastic rheology.
Detailed descriptions of the structures and associated mechanisms can be found in Spacapan et al. However, the Earth's crust is neither purely viscous, plastic, nor elastic, but, as stated, visco-elasto-plastic.