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It is often pointed out that since the war chariot was probably introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos, Pharaoh's gift to Joseph would best fit in the Second Intermediate Period and not in the earlier Middle Kingdom. But need we connect this vehicle used for transportation by a high official of government with war chariots?Nothing is said in the Joseph Story about chariots being used in battle, and in fact the chariot given to Joseph is called the second chariot of Pharaoh, thus leaving the impression that there were not many of them. Lastly, mention ought to be made of a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum and published by William C. This late Middle Kingdom document is of great importance for study of the Joseph Story, and can only be summarized here.It should be observed, however, that the Hyksos did not in any way suppress the worship of Re, the sun god of On.
1786-1570 BC (Vergote 1959; Kitchen 1962; Stigers 1976), a time when an Asiatic group called the Hyksos ruled the delta of the Nile.
But, if we believe in the historicity of Joseph and the accuracy of the events recorded in Genesis about his life and career, we can ask two questions with some hope of receiving an answer from the written and archeological sources: what is the best date for Joseph, and, once that has been posited, do the Biblical events fit in that period of Egyptian history?
In answer to our first question, two major positions exist regarding the date of Joseph among serious students of the Joseph Story who accept its historicity.
But first let us note an area for further research, involving the seven years of plenty followed by the seven years of famine so important to the Joseph Story.
About 20 years ago Barbara Bell studied the 12th Dynasty Egyptian records of Nile levels at the Middle Kingdom Nubian forts (1975).
Specific elements of the Joseph Story are normally cited in support of such a Middle Kingdom date. Potiphar, the official who first bought Joseph, is called an Egyptian and commander of the king's guard in Genesis 39:1.